Integrated Optoelectronics

By the beginning of the 1970s, LED indicators started to evolve into LED displays. The earliest LED displays are constructed of dozens of small indicator-style dies, while later displays are constructed from more complicated multi-segment dies. Simple displays were eventually supplanted by LED intelligent displays, the first class of true computation/display components to come about since the Dekatron and other direct-view counting tubes were introduced in the 1940s and 1950s.

The beginning of the 1970s also saw the introduction of liquid crystal technology, which would ultimately displace LED displays in many applications.

Fairchild Imaging CCD143A
 Fairchild Imaging CCD143A

The Fairchild Imaging CCD143A is a high speed linear CCD image sensor designed for page scanning applications. The heart of the CCD143A is a 2048x1 photosite array with 13x13um photosites, which provides an 8-line per millimeter resolution across a 256mm page. The CCD143A die also incorporates transfer gates, four 1041-bit shift registers, charge amplifiers, dark/white reference circuitry and a clock.

Fairchild Imaging CCD143A Datasheet (PDF)

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Hewlett-Packard 5082-7000
 Hewlett-Packard 5082-7000

Announced in the February 1969 edition of Hewlett-Packard Journal, the 5082-7000 Solid State Numeric Indicator was the world's first intelligent LED display. HP touted the 5082-7000 as being the culmination of six years of LED research and development, combined with their experience in semiconductor production and optoelectronic packaging. The single digit 5082-7000 and three digit 5082-7001 accept ASCII-conforming 8-4-2-1 BCD input, and are TTL compatible. This basic configuration would later be replicated in dozens of other similar devices.

Although apparently primitive compared to its innumerable descendants, the 5082-7000 was a total revolution in digital display technology. Its direct descendants, the 5082-7340 and competing Texas Instruments TIL311, would come to dominate the intelligent display industry through the 1970s and 1980s. Burroughs Corporation, who had enjoyed a near monopoly for over a decade with various Nixie-based products, would be driven out of the market entirely. Additionally, the technology used in the 5082-7000 was adapted by Hamilton Watch Company, in the development of their Pulsar LED wristwatch.

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Hewlett-Packard 5082-7101 & 5082-7107
 Hewlett-Packard 5082-7101 & 5082-7107

Devices included in this entry:

Hewlett-Packard 5082-7101 (28-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP)
Hewlett-Packard 5082-7107 (36-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP; pictured in thumbnail)


Announced in the July 1970 edition of Hewlett-Packard Journal, the HP 5082-7100 series of 5x7 bitmapped alphanumeric LED displays represented another significant improvement in the versatility of LED display technology. The 5082-7100 is capable of displaying any ASCII character, when supplied with a significant amount of external multiplexing circuitry. At the time of introduction, 5082-7100 series devices were priced at $70 per character (or $2 per die) when purchased in small quantities. Both the HP 9820A and HP 9830A desktop calculators used horizontally stacked arrays of 5082-7101 four-digit displays. The uncharacterized 5082-7107 appears to be extremely similar to the five-digit 5082-7102 described in HP Journal.

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Hewlett-Packard 1990-0408
 Hewlett-Packard 1990-0408

The Hewlett-Packard 1990-0408 is a 7-segment numeric variant of the 6082-7100, with equally rugged ceramic and glass construction. As indicated by the 1990- part number prefix, this device was only manufactured for internal use. The device pictured here was salvaged from a HP 2802A Thermometer, and a 6-digit variant was used in the HP 5300A Timer/Counter.

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Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2xxx Series
 Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2xxx Series

Devices included in this entry:

Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2000 (12-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP)
Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2010TXV (12-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP)
Hewlett-Packard QDSP-2021 (12-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP; pictured in thumbnail)


Hewlett-Packard first introduced the HDSP-2000 in 1976, as the display elements used in the HP 9825A desktop computer/calculator. Unlike HP's earlier mult-character displays which require external multiplexing circuitry, the HDSP-2000 is driven by four internal SIPO (Serial-In-Parallel-Out) shift registers, grouped in pairs in two planar dies housed within the display package. Serial data is shifted into the display in 28-bit words, and converted to parallel data which directs the multiplexing of the LED elements. All HDSP-2xxx series devices are packaged in glass and ceramic, and some models are actually built with red glass, a unique feature among the pantheon of early LED displays.

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Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2490
 Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2490

The Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2490 is a more advanced variant of the 5082-7100. Unlike its predecessors, which are driven by external multiplexing circuitry, the HDSP-2490 is driven by four internal SIPO shift registers, much like the smaller HDSP-2xxx series devices.

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Hewlett-Packard 5082-73xx Series
 Hewlett-Packard 5082-73xx Series

Devices included in this entry:

Hewlett-Packard 5082-7300 (8-pin epoxy DIP)
Hewlett-Packard HDSP-0781TXV (8-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP)
Hewlett-Packard 5082-7340 (8-pin epoxy DIP)
Hewlett-Packard 5082-7359 (8-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP)
Hewlett-Packard HDSP-0962 (8-pin glass-on-ceramic DIP; pictured in thumbnail)


The Hewlett-Packard 5082-7300 is the Cadillac of early single-digit intelligent LED displays, with an integral hexadecimal decoder, positive 8-4-2-1 logic input and memory, all in a tiny 8-pin DIP. The 5082-7300 is significantly smaller than the benchmark TIL311.

5082-73xx devices are available in two basic types: decimal and hexadecimal display. The 5082-7300 displays digits 0-9 plus a decimal point, while the 5082-7340 displays characters 0-F and includes a blanking function.

5082-73xx devices have a false bitmap display, which gives the appearance of a true bitmap character, but only includes the pixel elements required to make up the display's limited character set. Unlike true bitmap character displays, which usually have a 5x7 matrix, 5082-73xx has a 4x7 matrix, with the elements spaced further apart horizontally than vertically.

The 5082-7300 and 5082-7340 have many pin-compatible descendants in various colors and construction styles. The HDSP-0781TXV is a ruggedized variant of the 5082-7300, designed for military use. The 5082-7359 and HDSP-0962 are variants of the 5082-7340, designed for industrial applications.

5082-73xx Series Datasheet

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Hewlett-Packard 5082-74xx Series
 Hewlett-Packard 5082-74xx Series

Devices included in this entry:

Hewlett-Packard 5082-7433 (12-pin epoxy DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
Hewlett-Packard 5082-7412 (12-pin epoxy DIP)
Hewlett-Packard 5082-7432 (12-pin epoxy DIP)
Hewlett-Packard QDSP-6064 (12-pin epoxy DIP)


In 1972, Hewlett-Packard introduced the 5082-7415, a 5-digit numeric LED display for use in their first generation of handheld calculators. HP later manufactured other variants of this display with two, three or four digits. These devices are pin-compatible with the Litronix DL330 and other similar displays. Devices in this series are not intelligent; control must be provided entirely with external drive circuitry.

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Hewlett-Packard 5082-7446
 Hewlett-Packard 5082-7446

Unlike HP's earlier multi-digit handheld calculator displays, whose dies are molded directly into an epoxy carrier, the 5082-7446 has a more modern construction, with the dies mounted on a PCB carrier and covered with a lens-equipped plastic lid. 12- and 15-digit displays of this construction style were used in HP's second generation 'Woodstock' handheld calculators and 'Topcat' desktop calculators, respectively.

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Hewlett-Packard HDSP-8820
 Hewlett-Packard HDSP-8820

The Hewlett-Packard HDSP-8820 is a 101-element linear bar graph display in a 22-pin SIP, designed for multiplexed operation. This device was available in three variants: HDSP-8820 (red), HDSP-8825 (high efficiency red) and HDSP-8835 (green).

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Hewlett-Packard HDSP-6508
 Hewlett-Packard HDSP-6508

The Hewlett-Packard HDSP-6508 is an 8-character alphanumeric LED display, similar to the Monsanto MAN2185 / Litronix DL2185. The HDSP-6508 is larger than the MAN2185, and each character has a full complement of 16 segments and two decimal point / colon separator elements. The MAN2185 gangs pairs of center segments together, to conserve on pin count. Like most alphanumeric displays from this era, each digit of the HDSP-6508 is constructed from a single monolithic planar die.

Although it has the general appearance of two horizontally stacked HDSP-2416 intelligent displays, the HDSP-6508 has no integrated character generation or drivers. All control must be supplied externally.

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Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2111 & HDSP-2112
 Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2111 & HDSP-2112

Devices included in this entry:

Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2111 (28-pin composite DIP)
Siemens HDSP-2111S (28-pin composite DIP)
Siemens PDSP-2111 (28-pin composite DIP)
Hewlett-Packard HDSP-2112 (28-pin composite DIP; pictured in thumbnail)


The Hewlett-Packard HDSP-211x is a family of eight-digit, 5x7 bitmap character LED intelligent displays with full 7-bit ASCII, 16 user-definable characters, daisy-chainable master clock, internal oscillator option, multilevel dimming and blanking, and full read/write operations.

HDSP-211x Series Datasheet (PDF)

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Litronix MAN1 Variant (Unknown P/N)
 Litronix MAN1 Variant (Unknown P/N)

This strange Litronix display appears to be identical to a standard Litronix MAN1, but adds an incredibly huge magnifier lens which dwarfs the rest of the package. Each segment consists of a single die with four circular active areas, a construction method consistent with Litronix devices.

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Litronix DL3xx Series
 Litronix DL3xx Series

Devices included in this entry:

Litronix DL330 (12-pin epoxy DIP)
Siemens DL340M (13-pin plastic DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
Unknown Mfr. DL34M (13-pin plastic DIP)


The Litronix DL330 is a widely adopted three-digit numeric LED display. Each digit is constructed from a single planar die, and aligned beneath a bubble magnifier. DL3xx series devices were produced by a number of other manufacturers, including Siemens.

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Litronix DL1416
 Litronix DL1416

Litronix first entered the intelligent display market in 1977 with the introduction of the DL1416 four-digit alphanumeric display. The DL1416 is a powerful device, with an integrated ASCII ROM decoder, cursor control, multiplexing circuitry and constant current drivers. The DL1416 accepts asynchronous input and can store all four characters in memory indefinitely.

Perhaps the best-known use of the DL1416 is as the display of the Rockwell AIM-65 6502-based development system.

Special thanks to Dr. Bruce Jarnot for donating this display.

Siemens DL1416B Datasheet (PDF)

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Litronix DL1414 & DL2416
 Litronix DL1414 & DL2416

Devices included in this entry:

Litronix DL1414 (12-pin plastic DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
Hewlett-Packard HPDL-2416 (18-pin plastic DIP)
Litronix DL2416T (18-pin plastic DIP)
Siemens DL2416T (12-pin plastic DIP)


While the DL1416 was a popular display, it was somewhat large relative to its digit size, and Litronix soon sought to improve their flagship LED product. The resulting design was the DL2416, a device with the same functionality and character size as the DL1416 but in a smaller form factor which omits the large offset portion below the display area. Litronix also introduced the DL1414, a smaller display with the same construction characteristics as the DL2416. Unlike the DL1416 and DL2416, the DL1414 lacks cursor control functions.

Siemens DL1414T Datasheet (PDF)
Siemens DL2416T Datasheet (PDF)

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Monsanto MAN1 & MAN1A
 Monsanto MAN1 & MAN1A

Devices included in this entry:

Monsanto MAN1 (14-pin clear epoxy DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
Monsanto MAN1A (14-pin red epoxy DIP)


The MAN1 is generally considered to be the world's first production seven-segment LED display. Following the introduction of the MAN1, the now-familiar seven-segment LED rapidly took over the world, wiping out the demand for Nixie tubes, Minitrons, Panaplex displays, and many other display technologies in a single blow. Each segment of the MAN-1 is made up of two silicon wafers, which each contain four diode elements. With the inclusion of a decimal point, the entire display contains 57 separate light emitting sectors, which is quite a lot compared to modern displays which typically only use a single diode for each segment, or even a single etched die for each character. The MAN1's first generation diode technology results in a very dim display, but the virtual immortality of LED technology was a drastic improvement over the incandescent Minitron displays and complex gas-filled devices with which it was designed to compete.

Soon after the release of the MAN1, Monsanto introduced a modified version, the MAN1A. The MAN1A is identical in functionality and basic construction to a standard MAN-1, but has a dark red epoxy case which does a great deal to hide the display's ugly internal construction.

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Monsanto MAN2A
 Monsanto MAN2A

Devices included in this entry:

General Instrument MAN2A (14-pin epoxy DIP)
Lite-On LTP-305G (14-pin epoxy DIP; pictured in thumbnail)


The Monsanto MAN2A is the first commercially manufactured bitmap LED display. Introduced soon after the MAN1 seven-segment device, the MAN2A has a conventional 5x7 pixel array plus decimal point, housed in a standard 14-pin red epoxy package. Unlike many later 5x7 displays, the MAN2A has no integrated driver circuitry. The genuine Monsanto MAN2A is a rare device, but the MAN2A and various clones were produced by other manufacturers.

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Monsanto MAN3 & MAN3A
 Monsanto MAN3 & MAN3A

Devices included in this entry:

Monsanto MAN-3 (10-pin epoxy flat pack)
Litronix MAN3A (10-pin epoxy inline package)
Monsanto MAN3A (10-pin epoxy inline package; pictured in thumbnail)


The Monsanto MAN3 is an early, highly miniaturized surface mount numeric display with a 3mm digit height. The MAN3 is extremely rare, but the improved MAN3A was widely used in early electronic pocket calculators, such as the Texas Instruments SR-10 and Commodore Minuteman 2.

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Monsanto MAN4
 Monsanto MAN4

The Monsanto MAN4 is an early, extremely rare numeric LED display, designed to reduce costs by decreasing the digit size and packing the device in a standard 14-pin DIP package. Each segment is constructed from a single die, mounted on a gold-plated leadframe. The MAN4 has tiny 4mm digits, and was not a popular device in its time.

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Monsanto MAN6A
 Monsanto MAN6A

The MAN6A is a larger pin-compatible sibling to the MAN1A. The MAN6A uses the same type of dies as the MAN1A, but has four dies per segment instead of two, doubling the height and width of the digit. The MAN6A cost twice as much to manufacture as the MAN1A, limiting its success as a product.

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National Semiconductor NSN33
 National Semiconductor NSN33

Devices included in this entry:

National Semiconductor NSN33 (12-pin epoxy DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
Unknown Mfr. NSN33 (12-pin epoxy DIP)


The National Semiconductor NSN33 is a pin-compatible replacement for the Litronix DL330, which omits the large bubble magnifiers used on DL3xx devices. Even without magnifiers, the digits of the NSN33 are larger than that of the DL330.

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National Semiconductor NSN66A
 National Semiconductor NSN66A

The NSN66A is a classic example of National Semiconductor's calculator display products. The NSN66A has single-die digit segments mounted on a ceramic or PCB substrate, with a red plastic cover to protect the dies and bond wires.

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National Semiconductor NSA578
 National Semiconductor NSA578

Though it appears externally similar to the NSN66A, the National Semiconductor NSA578 has a substantially different internal construction. Instead of having one die per segment, the NSA578 has a single planar die per digit, mounted on a PCB substrate, with separate dies for each decimal point. Like the NSN66A, the NSA578 has a red plastic cover to protect the dies and bond wires.

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NEC SN713B & SN756
 NEC SN713B & SN756

Devices included in this entry:

NEC SN713B (10-pin plastic DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
NEC SN756 (10-pin plastic and ceramic DIP)


The NEC SN713B and SN756 are early Japanese-manufactured seven segment displays with a highly diffuse red filter. The SN713B is a fairly common device, but the SN756 seems to be a complete mystery. Little is known about this history of these devices. If you have any information about early NEC LED displays, please contact us.

Special thanks to Dr. Bruce Jarnot for donating these display.

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Philips NXA1020
 Philips NXA1020

The Philips NXA1020 is a 604x576 color frame-transfer CCD image sensor, designed for capturing PAL color television. Invented by CCD pioneer Michael Thompsett at Bell Labs, the frame-transfer CCD has a two-part sensor, in which half of the array is masked from incoming light and functions as a buffer storage region. Signals from the light-sensitive region are transferred to the storage region first, instead of being transferred directly to the CCD outputs. This arrangement allows for faster framerates and other performance improvements as compared to full frame CCDs, but also doubles the device cost and increases the support hardware requirements.

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RFT VQC10
 RFT VQC10

The RFT VQC10 is an unusual four-digit bitmap semi-intelligent LED display with no onboard character generator. Controlling the VQC10 is somewhat Byzantine: the character is selected with a four phase clock signal, columns are selected with a 5-bit address, and rows are controlled externally. The VQC10 can be horizontally stacked to construct larger displays.

RFT VQC10 Datasheet (PDF)

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Siemens DLG3416
 Siemens DLG3416

The Siemens DLG3416 is an advanced descendant of the Litronix DL1416, equipped with 5x7 bitmap characters instead of the traditional 16-segment characters used in earlier devices. While the DL1416 is constrained to only 64 characters, the bitmap configuration of the DLG3416 allows for a full 7-bit ASCII repertoire of 128 characters.

This device is available in three variants: DLR3416 (red), DLO3416 (high efficiency red) and DLG3416 (green).

Special thanks to Dr. Bruce Jarnot for donating this display.

Siemens DLx3416 Datasheet (PDF)

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Start AL304V
 Start AL304V

The AL304V is a Soviet-manufactured analogue of the Monsanto MAN3, produced at the Start plant in Dalmatovo, Russia. While the AL304V and MAN3 share a similar outward construction style and 10-pin flat pack outline, the AL304V is a green device, built from eight discrete dies rather than using a single monolithic die for all segments. The package of the AL304V is a nearly transparent pale green plastic, and the ground plate is stamped to match the outline of the dies, giving the digit the appearance of floating within the device.

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Texas Instruments TIA8447
 Texas Instruments TIA8447

The Texas Instruments TIA8447 is a ruggedized variant of the archetypal TIL302 seven-segment LED display. Instead of a red epoxy package, the TIA8447 has a glass-on-ceramic carrier, much like HP's industrial LED displays.

Special thanks to Dr. Bruce Jarnot for donating this display.

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Texas Instruments TIL306
 Texas Instruments TIL306

The Texas Instruments TIL306 is an intelligent single-digit LED display featuring an integral decade counter and BCD output. The inclusion of a decade counter within an LED display quickly proved to be a failure in the marketplace, and TI and other companies largely abandoned their pursuit of such products to focus their energies on BCD and ASCII based displays.

Texas Instruments TIL306 & TIL307 Datasheet (PDF)

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Texas Instruments TIL308 & TIL309
 Texas Instruments TIL308 & TIL309

Devices included in this entry:

Texas Instruments TIL308 (16-pin epoxy DIP; pictured in thumbnail)
Texas Instruments TIL309 (16-pin epoxy DIP)


Although the Texas Instruments TIL308 and TIL309 appear nearly identical to the TIL306, their internal operation is quite different. Instead of having an integrated decade counter, the TIL308 and TIL309 are equipped with a BCD decoder, and provide a hexadecimal readout. Unlike the more popular TIL311 which succeeded them, the TIL308 and TIL309 are equipped with four BCD latch output pins.

The TIL308 and TIL309 are nearly identical, the only difference being that the TIL308 has a decimal point to the left of the digit, while the TIL309's decimal point is placed on the right.

Special thanks to Dr. Bruce Jarnot for donating these rare displays.

Texas Instruments TIL308 & TIL309 Datasheet (PDF)

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Texas Instruments TIL311
 Texas Instruments TIL311

The Texas Instruments TIL311 is easily the most common and readily available of all single-digit hexadecimal smart displays. Used in countless types of equipment since the 1970s, the TIL311 includes an integrated BCD decoder and hexadecimal character generator. The TIL311 is comparable in size to dumb displays such as the TIL302 and Monsanto MAN1, but is significantly larger than HP's competing 5082-7340 device.

One unusual problem with the TIL311 is that the plastic package can severely degrade over time. This degradation is similar to the 'acetate rot' phenomenon which plagues collectors of vintage casino dice.

Texas Instruments TIL311 Datasheet (PDF)

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